CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS
ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND
ACTS OF AGGRESSION*
The Security Council
shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace,
or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures
shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore
international peace and security.
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council
may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided
for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such
provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional
measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the
parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to
comply with such provisional measures.
The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed
force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon
the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include
complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air,
postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance
of diplomatic relations.
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41
would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by
air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore
international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations,
blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the
- All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the
maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available
to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special
agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including
rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international
peace and security.
- Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces,
their degree of readiness and general location, and the nature of the
facilities and assistance to be provided.
- The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the
initiative of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the
Security Council and Members or between the Security Council and groups of
Members and shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in
accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling
upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfillment of
the obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so
desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the
employment of contingents of that Member's armed forces.
In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures,
Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for
combined international enforcement action. The strength and degree of readiness
of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined
within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to
in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security
Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.
- There shall be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and assist
the Security Council on all questions relating to the Security Council's
military requirements for the maintenance of international peace and security,
the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation of
armaments, and possible disarmament.
- The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the
permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives. Any Member
of the United Nations not permanently represented on the Committee shall be
invited by the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient discharge
of the Committee's responsibilities requires the participation of that Member
in its work.
- The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the Security
Council for the strategic direction of any armed forces placed at the disposal
of the Security Council. Questions relating to the command of such forces
shall be worked out subsequently.
- The Military Staff Committee, with the authorization of the Security
Council and after consultation with appropriate regional agencies, may
establish regional sub-committees.
- The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for
the maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the
Members of the United Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may
- Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations
directly and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of
which they are members.
The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance
in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council.
If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the
Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or
not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from
the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security
Council with regard to a solution of those problems.
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual
or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the
United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to
maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the
exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the
Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and
responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any
time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore
international peace and security.